The day before roasting the turkey, bring 4 cups water to a boil in a large saucepan, add the salt and sugar, and stir to dissolve. Add the apple cider vinegar, dried sage, thyme and rosemary, peppercorns, and fresh sage and stir to combine. Pour the mixture into a 5-gallon pot or bucket and add the remaining 8 cups of water and ice and let cool completely. Rinse the turkey and place breast side down in the brine. Place in the refrigerator or an ice chest (with ice in the chest) and brine the turkey for 12 – 18 hours.
The morning you plan to serve the turkey, remove it from the brine, rinse well with cold water (making sure to rinse the inside of the turkey as well), pat dry with paper towels (inside and out) and let the turkey sit for 30 minutes.
Melt 1 cup butter or dairy free butter in a medium saucepan. Remove from the heat, add the wine, and stir to combine.
Place the rack on the bottom level of the oven and preheat to 450 degrees.
Sprinkle ½ teaspoon of pepper in the neck and large cavity of the turkey. Stuff both cavities lightly with as much stuffing as they hold but do not over pack. Rub the turkey with ¼ cup softened butter and sprinkle with the remaining 1½ teaspoons of pepper and the poultry seasoning. Place the turkey in a roasting pan, breast side up, fold the wings under the bird, fold the neck flap under and secure with a toothpick and tie the legs together with a piece of kitchen string.
Fold a large piece of cheesecloth into quarters and soak in the wine and butter mixture. Gently squeeze out most of the liquid and lay it over the breast and halfway down the side of the turkey. Spoon or squirt some more butter/wine mixture onto the cheese cloth. Place in the oven, legs first, and cook for 30 minutes. Baste the turkey with more butter/wine mixture, reduce the oven temperature to 350, and cook for another 2 ½ hours, basting the turkey every 30 minutes with the butter/wine mixture. If too much liquid fills the roasting pan, remove it with a turkey baster and add it back to the butter/wine mixture.
Remove and discard the cheesecloth. Place the turkey back into the oven, breast side in. Baste again. Continue to roast for another 1 – 1½ hours, or until an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the thigh reaches 165 degrees, basting every 30 minutes. If the breast starts to get too brown, loosely lay a piece of foil over it.
When the turkey is fully cooked, remove from the oven, place on a serving platter, and cover loosely with foil. Let rest 30 minutes before carving. Remove the toothpick and string, take the stuffing out of both cavities and place in a serving dish.